عنوان مقاله [English]
Earthquakes are one of the major phenomena affecting structures and engineers use design criteria to deal with their effects. In terms of the specific degree of safety for dams , it is necessary that the design of large dams include the largest believable earthquake in hazard analysis and probability consideration regardless of the amount of time it returns in the design. Pebble dams have mainly concrete or asphalt coating, which in addition to impermeability to water, increases the stability of the dam. Since a number of gravel dams have been constructed in Iran and several other gravel dams are under construction, the study and analysis of this type of dam is very important for current and future studies of dam engineering. In this research, pebble dam modeling will be done in Abacus software as well as model validation. First, the model presented in the reference article is modeled and validated. The model used in validation and this research is Musouchura Dam. After ensuring the accuracy of modeling and analysis, the effect of concrete strength of dam cover under the effect of selected accelerometers and by changing the strength of concrete and also the effect of considering the damping of concrete were measured and finally the results were compared. The accelerometers used in this study are Northridge, Bam, San Fernando and Tabas. Changes in concrete strength in three types C20, C25 and C30 with nominal strength of cylindrical compression specimens of 20, 25 and 30 MPa were made and this increase in strength is about 8 to 10% in reducing lateral displacement under selected accelerometers in the dam crown has it. Considering the damping effect in concrete with a value of 0.0325, under selected accelerometers, there is a change of about 3% in the lateral displacement of the dam crown, while it has little effect on the tensile degradation of the concrete surface.
 - Vafaeian M. (2015). Rockfill and Embankment dams, Arkan Danesh Publications, Isfahan
 - Bin X, Zou D, Liu H (2012). Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Construction Process of the Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Based on a Generalized Plasticity Model. Journal of Computers and Geotechnics, 43, 143-154
 - Liu J, Liu F, Kong X,Yu L. (2014). Large-Scale Shaking Table Model Tests of Aseismic Measures for Concrete Faced Rock-Fill Dams. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 11,152-113
 - Mahinroosta R, Alizadeh A, Gatmiri B (2015). Simulation of Collapse Settlement of First Filling in a High Rockfill Dam.Journal of Engineering Geology 147, 32-44
 - Bin X, Zou D Kong X, Hu Z, Zhou,Y (2015). Dynamic Damage Evaluation on the Slabs of the Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam with the Plastic-Damage Model.Journal of Computers and Geotechnics 15, 254-215
 -Jian-Min Z,Yang Z , Gao X , Zhang J (2015). Geotechnical Aspects and Seismic Damage of the 151-M-High Zipingpu ConcreteFaced Rockfill Dam Following the Ms 4.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 71, 145-151
 - Liu J, Liu F, Kong X, Yu,L (2015). Large-Scale Shaking Table Model Tests on Seismically Induced Failure of Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 42,11-23
 - Nazari A, Imam MR, (2013) Static and dynamic analysis of gravel dam with concrete surface (CFRD, International Conference on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning, Tabriz
- Jia Y, Chi Sh (2015). Back-analysis of soil parameters of the Malutang II concrete face rockfill dam using parallel mutation particle swarm optimization, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics,15,47-61
 -Wen L, Chai J, Xu Z, Qin Y, Li Y (2017). Monitoring and numerical analysis of behaviour of Miaojiaba concrete-face rockfill dam built on river gravel foundation in China, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics, 45, 230-244
 - Qu Y, Zou D, Kong X, Yu X, Chen K. (2020). Seismic cracking evolution for anti-seepage face slabs in concrete faced rockfill dams based on cohesive zone model in explicit SBFEM-FEM frame, Journal of Soil Dynamic and Earthquake Engineering,133, 106-120
 - Ghaemi A, Konrad JM. (2020). A semi-empirical relationship for predicting earthquake-induced crest settlement of concrete faced rockfill dams, Journal of Soil Dymanic and Earthquake Engineering,132,10, 59-90
- Wang X, Xue B, Xu B, Pang R.(2021). Role of Strong Motion Duration on Seismic Responses of High Concrete Faced Rockfill Dams, Journal of Strucures, 32, 1092-1102
 - Cen W, Wen L, Zhang Z, Xiong, K (2011). Numerical simulation of seismic damage and cracking of concrete slabs of high concrete face rockfill dams, Journal of Water Science and Engineering,9,3
- Albano M, Modoni G, Croce P, Russo G (2015). Assessment of the seismic performance of a bituminous faced rockfill dam, Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 75, 143-104
- Lee J. (1988). Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures." Journal of engineering mechanics, 124, 8, 892-900.
 PEER Berekely Reports.2011. https://peer.berkeley.edu/peer-reports
. Dakoulas p., Nonlinear seismic response of tall concrete-faced rockfill dams in narrow canyons, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol 34, P.P:11–24, 2012
- Abaqus software documentation, Simulia, Ver. 1.14.2.
 - Nourzad R, Janalizadeh A, Najafi T, (2011) Numerical evaluation of the dynamic behavior of gravel dam with concrete surface under severe earthquakes, Fifth National Congress of Civil Engineering
- Kakavand MR, Neuner M, Schreter M, Hofstetter G. (2018). A 3D continuum FE-model for predicting the nonlinear response and failure modes of RC frames in pushover analyses. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16, 10, 4893-4917.
- Grassi P. (2006). Damage-plastic model for concrete failure." International Journal of Solids and Structures 43,22, 7166-7196.
- Kakavand MR, Taciroglu E. (2020) An enhanced damage plasticity model for predicting the cyclic behavior of plain concrete under multiaxial loading conditions." Journal of Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 14,6, 1531-1544.
- Grassi P, Xenos D, Nystrom U, Rempling R, Gylltoft K. (2013) CDPM2: A damage-plasticity approach to modelling the failure of concrete." International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50,24, 3805-3816.
- Kakavand MR, Taciroglu E, Hofstetter G. (2020). Evaluation of the Performance of an Enhanced Damage Plasticity Model for Predicting the Cyclic Response of Plain Concrete under Multiaxial Loading Conditions, International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research,9,4,273-277, doi: 10.18178/ijscer.9.4.273-277.