مروری بر اجزای شهرهای اسفنجی ساخته شده از بتن متخلخل در راستای توسعه پایدار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکده مهندسی عمران آب و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده مهندسی عمران آب و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی - گروه سازه و زلزله - دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست - دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

افزایش جمعیت و توسعه فضای شهری از یک سو و از سوی دیگر گرمایش جهانی و تغییرات اقلیمی سبب ایجاد بحران‌های هیدرولوژیکی در نواحی شهری شده است. سیلاب‌های فصلی فراوان در سراسر دنیا و از طرفی معضل کمبود منابع آب شهری در برخی از فصول، سالانه خسارات زیادی را برای بسیاری از کشورها به همراه دارد. به دنبال وقوع سیلاب‌های متعدد و کمبود منابع، پژوهشگران چینی در سال 2014 مفهوم جدید شهرهای اسفنجی را به‌منظور حرکت در راستای توسعۀ پایدار، ارائه نمودند. پیشبرد برنامۀ ایجاد شهرهای اسفنجی به دلیل در بر گرفتن مقیاسی گسترده از مناطق و همچنین به‌ دلیل نیاز به هماهنگی‌ها و مجوزهای فراوان در سطح کشور، بر عهدۀ ارگان‌های دولتی خواهد بود. بتن متخلخل به‌عنوان فناوری نوین در توسعه فضاهای شهری به‌منظور کنترل رواناب‌های شهری در سال‌های اخیر در بسیاری از کشورهای پیشرفته تحت عنوان شهرهای اسفنجی مورد توجه بوده است. در گذشته این فناوری با چالش های فنی به مانند مقاومت مکانیکی محدود، دوام، گرفتگی درون حفره همراه بود که البته با توسعه فناوری مشکلات مرتفع گردید. این فناوری در کنار سایر اجزای تشکیل شهرهای اسفنجی مفهومی جدیدی از توسعه پایدار را معرفی می‎‌کند. در حال حاضر چالش‌های فراوانی در رسیدن به این مفهوم وجود دارد که اصلی‌ترین آن عدم وجود مدلی جامع و یکپارچه، با توجه به وجود ویژگی‌های اقلیمی و نیازهای متفاوت در مناطق مختلف یک کشور می‌باشد. این مطالعه به معرفی اجزای شهر اسفنجی پرداخته و با بررسی مطالعات گذشته، چالش‌های تحقق این مفهوم مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review of the Components of Sponge Cities based onPervious Concrete for Sustainable Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • kianoosh samimi 1
  • Mahyar Pakan 2
  • yahya sinaei 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 BSc Student, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increased population and urbanization, on the one hand, and global warming and climate change, on the other hand, have resulted in urban hydrological problems. Seasonal floods, as well as a lack of urban water supplies in specific seasons, inflict significant harm to numerous countries every year. Following the happening of frequent floods and resource scarcity, Chinese researchers introduced a new concept of sponge cities in 2014 to progress toward sustainable development. The development of the sponge cities program will be the responsibility of government agencies due to the broad-scale coverage of the areas and the necessity for substantial coordination and licensing across the country. Pervious concrete is considered as a new technology in the development of urban spaces in order to control urban runoff in recent years in many developed countries as sponge cities. In the past, this technology was associated with technical challenges such as limited mechanical resistance, durability, clogging which were solved with the development of technology. This technology, along with other components of sponge cities introduces a new concept of sustainable development. In this study, the components of Sponge City are introduced and by reviewing previous studies, the challenges of realizing this concept are studied.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainable Development
  • Runoff
  • Drainage
  • Sponge City
  • Water Resources Management
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  • تاریخ دریافت: 08 تیر 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 11 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 29 مرداد 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 29 مرداد 1401